Wednesday, February 02, 2011

Strange skuls found around the world


Some Bizarre Skulls Found around the World

Archaeologists from all over the world have been discovering strange artifacts for the past centuries, some of them are gold coins embedded in coal and other evidences of landing of UFOs in the fields that left the marks behind. Recently, very unique type of small bones have been discovered on the islands of Indonesia and this has led to the concept of existence of another different type species of humans, now known as Homo Floresiensis. Similarly, numerous elongated skulls have been found in North and South American regions. In North America certain research lab is formed by the government to study the unique yet mysterious star child skull.
Mentioned below is a list of skulls of different shapes found in different regions of the world.

1. The Vampire Skull

The remains of a medieval "vampire" have been discovered among the corpses of 16th century plague victims in Venice, according to an Italian archaeologist who led the dig.
The body of the woman was found in a mass grave on the Venetian island of Lazzaretto Nuovo. Suspecting that she might be a vampire, a common folk belief at the time, gravediggers shoved a rock into her skull to prevent her from chewing through her shroud and infecting others with the plague, said anthropologist Matteo Borrini of the University of Florence.
In the absence of medical science, vampires were just one of many possible contemporary explanations for the spread of the Venetian plague in 1576, which ran rampant through the city and ultimately killed up to 50,000 people, some officials estimate.
Italy's famous canal city wasn't really overrun with medieval Draculas, however.
With hundreds of Venetians dying every day, gravediggers likely just misinterpreted the corpses they saw at varying levels of decomposition while reopening fresh mass graves, said Borrini.
The "stages which reduce the corpse to a skeleton were poorly known because they happen in the grave," Borrini told LiveScience. "Graves were usually reopened after years, when the body had completely turned into a skeleton."
Death exposed
Vampire superstition was already part of European culture by the time the bubonic plague reappeared on the continent in sporadic outbreaks throughout the late 1500s. The classic folkloric image of the undead, bloodsucking vampire likely originated in Eastern Europe and spread westwards, historians say, blending and morphing with local beliefs as it went.
Ignorance about the natural stages of decomposition probably fed the original vampire myths, Borrini said, noting that historical documentation of vampires harped on the oddly life-like appearance of recently buried bodies.
"There are some recurring aspects in vampire exhumation reports (usually written in the 17th and 18th century by church-goers and well-educated men, and sometimes even by scientists): uncorrupted corpse, pliable limbs, smooth and tensed skin, renewed beard and nails," Borrini said. At the time "death was linked to a cold and stiff corpse, or to a blanched skeleton (dry bones)," he said, so evidence of anything to the contrary was considered worrisome when the rare body was exhumed for examination.
In the middle of the plague in Venice, however, victims were being dumped into mass graves such as the one on Lazzaretto Nuovo very regularly, exposing bodies at every gruesome stage of decay.
Frightened gravediggers

A phenomenon that occurs early on in the process of decomposition – abdominal bloating – is what likely concerned the Venetian gravediggers, Borrini said. When humans die, the body releases a myriad of bacterial gases that cause a corpse to bloat with fluid, usually just a few days after death in the absence of any kind of preservation or protection from coffins.
"During this phase, the decay of the gastrointestinal tract contents and lining create a dark fluid called 'purge fluid'; it can flow freely from the nose and mouth...and it could easily be confused with the blood sucked by the vampire," said Borrini.
If the "vampire" woman was emitting blood from her mouth, the fluid likely moistened her burial shroud causing it to sink into her jaw cavity and be dissolved by the fluids, Borrini said, making it appear as though she was trying to bite through her shroud. When discovered in that state, a stone was jammed into her mouth as a kind of exorcism to prevent her from potentially spreading the disease further, the researchers think.
Medieval skeletons have been found in a similar state in other parts of Europe, Borrini said.
Bad times = superstition
It is difficult to decipher whether the brick-in-mouth tactic discovered in Venice was truly based on a deep fear of vampires or was merely extra precaution in troubled times, Borrini acknowledged.
"From a forensic point of view, we can accept the reports about the 'vampire corpses' as real descriptions, but we can also realize why those legends spread especially during plagues," Borrini said. The mere fact that tombs and mass graves were reopened so frequently during pandemics to bury new victims of a disease, exposing partially decomposed bodies, only increased "dread and superstition among people who were already suffering pestilence and massive death," he said.
Borrini presented his findings to a recent meeting of the American Association of Forensic Sciences, along with forensic orthodontist Emilio Nuzzolese.

skull of a vampire

2. The StarChild Skull

The discovery of the StarChild skull is probably the most controversial. The skull was first discovered by a teenage girl in Chihuahua State. As time passed, in 1998 the skull was taken into custody by Ray Young in 1998. Ray consulted Lloyd Pye, a famous researcher, to find the facts about this skull. This was the time when the discovery of this skull was taken seriously by the researchers.
This is what the scientists were able to discover about this skull in the beginning. The skull is of a human child, probably around 4 to 5 years old. The normal capacity of a human’s skull is 200cc but this skull has a capacity of 1600cc. The DNA test reports show that the skull has both X and Y chromosomes, another fact which supports it to be a human skull. Another strange feature the scientists were able to find is that the DNA of the mother was of human, but the DNA of the father was unusual, which means the father was not alike any other human. This has led to a theory that the skull might be of a human-alien child.

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star child skull

                                                            Starchild Skull 2010 DNA Result

In Brief:
A modified "shotgun" DNA recovery technique has been successfully used to recover coherent segments of the Starchild Skull's nuclear DNA. Of the (approx.) 3 billion base pairs in the skull's genome, several thousand have been recovered. These nuclear DNA fragments have been analyzed by the National Institutes of Health BLAST program, and a substantial percentage of that DNA has "no significant similarity" to any DNA previously found on Earth.
These results have been verified and repeated; however, more DNA needs to be recovered and analyzed before a formal report can be completed

In Detail: Early in 2010 the head of a large genetics lab in the U.S. contacted the Starchild Project and suggested that he could attempt to use a recovery technique called modified “shotgun” sequencing to isolate the Starchild’s nuclear DNA. This is the same nuclear DNA that could not be recovered during six attempts in an extensive DNA test conducted by Trace Genetics in 2003.

Trace Genetics used what was available then: long human-only primers made from many thousands of base pairs strung together. The new refined shotgun technique could recover much shorter strings of as little as 200 to 500 base pairs long. Where primers are like a single bullet, the new technique is like a spray of shotgun pellets, giving a much better chance to hit a result. The geneticist was certain that if the skull’s nuclear DNA was still viable, then, human or not, he could recover it.

A sample of the Starchild Skull’s bone was provided, and in a few weeks the geneticist reported some incredible results. Not only had he recovered substantial amounts of nuclear DNA, he had also made a historic discovery when he attempted to catalogue his results. The gel sheet below shows an unmistakable recovery of its nuclear DNA, showing more than a half-dozen strings between 1000 and 2000 base pairs long.

Gel sheet showing the recovery of the Starchild Skull's Nuclear DNA
Whenever a geneticist wants to have an unknown sequence of DNA analyzed, they send it for analysis to the enormous genetic database located at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Maryland. That public-access database is a centralized repository of all the genomic data accumulated by U.S. government funded research, and it now covers every phylum on Earth, from various kinds of viruses and bacteria, to various kinds of crustaceans and fish, to all kinds of animals and plants, including primates and humans.

Our geneticist sent several samples of the Starchild’s nuclear DNA to be compared with trillions of recorded sequences at the NIH. Below we see a report summary returned by the NIH Basic Logical Alignment Search Tool (BLAST).

BLAST report on the Starchild Skull's Nuclear DNA
In this report we see that one length of 265 base pairs from the Starchild Skull’s nuclear DNA matches perfectly with a gene on human chromosome 1. This verifies that at least some of the nuclear DNA from the Starchild is from a human being.

In the next screen shot (below) a string of 342 base pairs recovered from the Starchild Skull was analyzed. This time the result reads: "No significant similarity found. For reasons why, click here.” Those “reasons why” are an automatically generated list of possible procedural errors designed to help geneticists check all possible flaws in their testing techniques. Our geneticist has verified his procedures and replicated his results, indicating that no such mistakes were made.
BLAST report on the Starchild Skull's Nuclear DNA
To have recovered a string of base pairs 342 nucleotides long with NO reference in the NIH database is astounding because it means there is NO known earthly corollary for what has been analyzed!

Please understand that these results have now been repeated and verified several times. Strings of Starchild DNA over 3000 base pairs long have failed to match with anything in the NIH database. Despite that, skeptics will be obligated by their positions to try to say it is some kind of genetic gibberish or a mistake made during the analysis process. Why? Because, in the words of philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer: “Every truth passes through three stages. First it is ridiculed. Second it is violently opposed. Third it is accepted as being self-evident.”

Luckily, any protest can easily be overcome with continued repetition and reproduction of results, isolating more and more unique fragments to add to the library of data already being created from Starchild DNA.

Our geneticist is confident that complete confirmation will unfold over the following months as the Starchild Skull’s entire genome is recovered using advanced sequencing technology. Ultimately, he will be able to formally announce that he has absolute, ironclad proof that a significant part of the Starchild's genome cannot be found on Earth.


3. The Skull of Queen Nefertiti

Queen Nefertiti was the wife of the Egyptian Pharaoh called Akhenaton, who is believed to be the one to bring changes in the way of worship of the stars and the sun. The strange feature about the Queen Nefertiti was her cranium, which is depicted to be almost 50% larger than the skull of a normal human. In all the Egyptians carvings, the head of the Queen is excessively large. There numerous Egyptologists who believe that it might have been done by the artists only to present their sense of art to the Pharaoh, while other archaeologists believe that the artists only carved the real existing features of the human on the limestone walls, therefore, it might be true that the skull of the Queen Nefertiti was larger than the normal cranium. 

The Skull of Queen Nafertiti


4. The Elongated Inca Skulls

The harsh fact is that the human brain and skull has increased faster in size than the female pelvis. Incredibly fast! Put simply, the average human baby’s head is now too big and requires extreme physical contortion and rotation to achieve a natural birth.  (Of all the facts that we present you on the Aquiziam website – this is the one that is the most important. Evolution does not usually make this kind of mistake.  Currently one in three children born in Canada and the United States is delivered via Caesarean section. How could this have happened?)
Giving birth is an extremely painful episode for most women and is almost unique to humans.  Most other creatures on this planet do not seem to experience the same degree of discomfort.  This is an extremely important clue to the origin of our species that is embarrassingly overlooked by most of the scientists that study evolution. Still, as a result, life has ensured that foetal skulls are soft and pliable to allow them to pass through the bony ring of the pelvis and the vaginal canal.  It is not uncommon for children to be born with cone shaped heads that quite quickly readjust to the appropriate shape.

However, in many ancient cultures it became the practice to bind the infant’s head with cloths and wooden slats for a period of between six months to one year to create a shape that was socially acceptable and tribally recognisable.  In a sense it was a primitive ID card that said you belonged to the “pick-your-name” tribe for now and forever.  This practice resulted in a wide variety of misshapen cranial structures that still baffle modern science particularly as in some cases the volume of the brain-chamber has also been increased.
This practice may have also stimulated some unforeseen side-effects. By changing the geometry of the skull it may have been possible to change the functioning of the brain.  Today it would be considered extreme to carry out this practice and as a result it is almost never done.  We cannot tell what psychological changes it might have created.  Did it increase intelligence?  Did it stimulate paranormal abilities?  Did it emulate an entity that was perceived as a God? There must have been some benefit or it would not have been carried out in the first place. 
Archaeologists have discovered many dozens of elongated skulls from both Egypt and South America.  Interestingly, these regions both had a fascination with the construction of pyramids, the stars, calendars, mummification and death. Both societies also had complex agricultural secrets and a powerful priesthood.  We don’t know what this means and are reluctant to add yet another theory but it should make you stop and think – if only for a moment

Elongated Inca Skulls



5. Homo Floresiensis

A new type of skull was discovered on the Island of Flores, which is a part of Indonesia by a research team in 2003. This had led to the discovery of new type of species of human called Homo Floresiensis. Such type of primitive humans were smaller in size, the most recent discovered complete skeleton of a human is about 3 feet and 6 inches in height. These humans used to hunt animals which are now extinct, some of those animals were giant rats, and small elephants also named scientifically as Dwarf Stegodon.This type of human skull has teeth similar to that of a human today, however, there is no bony chin and the cranium has a loping forehead.                                                                                     

Homo Floresiensis

7. Skulls with Horns

During the 1880s a large burial mound was discovered in Sayre, a borough in Bradford County, Pennsylvania. It was reported that a group of people uncovered several strange human skulls and bones. The skeletons suggested anatomically, normal men with the exception of their long, thin horns (featured to the left.)
            The bones were characterized as giant because the skeletons ranged over seven feet tall. Scientists estimated that the bodies had been buried around A.D. 1200. The archeological discovery was made by a reputable group of antiquarians (Dr. G.P. Donehoo, the Pennsylvania state dignitary of the Presbyterian Church; A.B. Skinner, of the American Investigating Museum; and W.K.Morehead, of Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts.)
                Though, it’s not the first time we’ve discovered horned skulls. Actually, in the 19th century, similar skulls were found near Wellsville, New York and in a mining village close to El Paso, Texas. “At one time in history, human horns were used as signs of kingship. Alexander the Great was depicted with horns on some of his coins.” According to historical reports, the Sayre bones were supposedly sent to the American Investigating Museum in Philadelphia. Apparently, the artifacts were stolen and never seen again. 
Skulls with Horns


8. Gigantic Skulls

Numerous giant skulls have been discovered from different regions of the world. All the archaeologists believe them to be original because certain conditions of enlargement of the skull and the body are even possible today. Most probably it is due to the excessive release of the hormones during the pregnancy in the womb of the mother, which results in gigantism. Most of these skulls discovered are approximately 15,000 years old. In 1911, some miners were digging up a cave in North America when they discovered numerous skeletons and other mummified bodies. These bodies were sent to the museums, educational institutions and research labs to study. According to the reports, these primitive people were about 10 feet tall, while there were others even taller.

Gigantic Skulls

It is believed that Vikings in the earlier times were also gigantic. In 2002, while the oil exploration teams were working, they found an even taller skeleton of a man who had a height of almost 25 feet, which of course baffled the scientists. There are numerous graves in countries like Pakistan where the graves are almost 8 to 9 meters in length.

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