Thursday, April 28, 2011

The Secret Caves of Giza

Beneath the pyramids of Egypt lies a lost underworld of catacombs, hewn chambers and cave tunnels that have remained unexplored for hundreds of years. They are alluded to in ancient texts and Arab legends, but have been left unexplored until today. They have now been rediscovered and investigated for the first time. What exactly does this subterranean realm tell us about the pyramids, their relationship to the stars and the mythical origins of Egyptian civilization? Discover for yourself as we explore the “Lost Caves of Giza.

Giza cave underworld

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Cave Complex Allegedly Found Under Giza Pyramid
Rossella Lorenzi, Discovery News

 An enormous system of caves, chambers and tunnels lies hidden beneath the Pyramids of Giza, according to a British explorer who claims to have found the lost underworld of the pharaohs.
Populated by bats and venomous spiders, the underground complex was found in the limestone bedrock beneath the pyramid field at Giza.
"There is untouched archaeology down there, as well as a delicate ecosystem that includes colonies of bats and a species of spider which we have tentatively identified as the white widow," British explorer Andrew Collins said.
Collins, who will detail his findings in the book "Beneath the Pyramids" to be published in September, tracked down the entrance to the mysterious underworld after reading the forgotten memoirs of a 19th century diplomat and explorer.
"In his memoirs, British consul general Henry Salt recounts how he investigated an underground system of 'catacombs' at Giza in 1817 in the company of Italian explorer Giovanni Caviglia," Collins said.
The document records that the two explored the caves for a distance of "several hundred yards," coming upon four large chambers from which stretched further cave passageways.
With the help of British Egyptologist Nigel Skinner-Simpson, Collins reconstructed Salt's exploration on the plateau, eventually locating the entrance to the lost catacombs in an apparently unrecorded tomb west of the Great Pyramid.
Indeed, the tomb featured a crack in the rock, which led into a massive natural cave.
"We explored the caves before the air became too thin to continue. They are highly dangerous, with unseen pits and hollows, colonies of bats and venomous spiders," said Collins.

According to Collins, the caves -- which are tens of thousands, if not hundreds of thousands of years old -- may have both inspired the development of the pyramid field and the ancient Egyptian's belief in an underworld.
"Ancient funerary texts clearly allude to the existence of a subterranean world in the vicinity of the Giza pyramids," Collins told Discovery News.
Indeed, Giza was known anciently as Rostau, meaning the "mouth of the passages."
This is the same name as a region of the ancient Egyptian underworld known as the Duat.
"The 'mouth of the passages' is unquestionably a reference to the entrance to a subterranean cave world, one long rumored to exist beneath the plateau," Collins told Discovery News.
Collins' claim is expected to cause a stir in the Egyptological world.
Zahi Hawass, chief of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities, has dismissed the discovery.
"There are no new discoveries to be made at Giza. We know everything about the plateau," he stated.
But Collins remarks that after extensive research, he found no mention of the caves in modern times.
"To the best of our knowledge nothing has ever been written or recorded about these caves since Salt’s explorations. If Hawass does have any report related to these caves, we have yet to see it," Collins said.

The Secret Caves of Giza

"Giza Cave" Controversy Continues

Dr. Zahi Hawass,  Secretary General of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities, has just entered the  "Giza cave" debate.  In a blog posting on his website, complete with pictures, he debunks Collins' claim that a massive cave system lies hidden beneath the Pyramids of Giza and clearly states that that "there is no underground cave complex at this site." 
Dr. Hawass' firm statement prompted the immediate reaction of British explorer Andrew Collins and Egyptological researcher Nigel Skinner-Simpson, who claim to  have rediscovered the entrance to a cave system explored by Henry Salt and Giovanni Caviglia in 1817.

Using the official statements,  I've created a sort of three voice, round table debate, so that everybody can try to draw conclusions on their own considering the various points of controversy.
Since this three voice debate is based on excerpts of the official statements, I strongly recommend to read these statements in their entirety. 

Here is Dr. Hawass's blog posting, and here is Collins and Skinner-Simpson's official response. For sure this is not the end of the story.
The debate begins with Dr Hawass posting a satellite image that indicates the precise location in the plateau’s northern cliff-face of the rock-cut tomb (named by Collins and Skinner-Simpson "Tomb of the Birds") from which the caves are claimed to extend.
Dr. Hawass mentions a book called Porter and Moss: A Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs and Paintings, which contains information about all the sites in Egypt.
Dr. Hawass: If you consult this resource, it will tell you that this “cave” is a rock-cut tomb that was found and opened in 1816-1817 by Henry Salt. Salt was the British consul in Egypt, not an archaeologist, who worked with Giovanni Caviglia to discover this tomb. When they explored it, they called it a catacomb because it contains some tunnels and corridors cut deep into the rock. Anyone who enters this tomb may feel they are in a maze corridor because of the multiple tunnels, and it seems more than its 35 meters long. Henry Salt and Caviglia noticed that the structure was similar to catacombs known from the Graeco-Roman Period. Years later, Howard Vyse and John Shae Perring came to examine the rock cut tomb. It has also recently been re-explored by my office, the Supreme Council of Antiquities.
Collins: Dr Hawass is wrong here. He is not taking into account the existence of the natural caves, which exit the tomb for at least the 100-120 meters, and arguably the “several hundred yards” that Salt reported that he and Caviglia reached before coming upon the four spacious chambers. Remember also that Caviglia journeyed “300 feet further” in one direction, and that clearly they never reached the end of the tunnels, which arguably extend even further beneath the pyramid field.
Skinner-Simpson: Dr. Hawass mentions the standard reference work Porter and Moss and says it contains information on all the sites in Egypt and what has been found. I was of course aware of this work... It is a work I refer to constantly and it was my first port of call years ago when I first wanted to know more about the tomb. I would be most grateful if Dr. Hawass could cite a full reference as to where in this volume it mentions Salt’s discovery of the rock-cut tomb, as I have never been able to find any mention of it.
Dr. Hawass: Andrew Collins and Nigel Skinner-Simpson came to Egypt in order to rediscover the tomb. They thought that they were the first to fully explore the tomb although it had been found almost two centuries ago and has been explored and reported by many scholars.
Collins: If such reports do exist, then we would be more than happy to receive copies, and update our findings and conclusions accordingly...It would be naïve to imply that we were the first to “rediscover the tomb”, as it is clearly visible in the northern face of the plateau’s Moqattam formation. Moreover, we openly acknowledge that Salt and Caviglia in 1817, and Vyse and Perring in 1837. We simply came here to check whether the tomb did indeed lead into a system of natural caves.
Dr. Hawass: "This rock-cut tomb is about 150 meters from my excavation in the western field and extends from north to south with the entrance in the north. About 3.2 meters high, the entrance leads south into the front hall, shaped like an inverted T. From there two halls are visible, one to the right and one to the left. The left leads to a big room cut into the rock, about 6 meters long, which contained Latin inscriptions on the ceiling, showing that this tomb has been opened throughout the ages. To the right there is another square hole cut into the rock, which leads to a descending passage filled with sand, and contains pottery sherds, bones and other artifacts. There are other passageways cut into the rock from the main corridors, but these are short tunnels.
Collins: Dr Hawass’s statement that we have simply become confused by the maze-like layout of the tomb, and in doing so have labelled it a cave complex is simply not correct. Firstly, the tomb itself is relatively basic in its construction. After entry via a massive, deep-cut façade, you come upon a double lobed anteroom, with two worn, square-cut pillars. This leads you into a north-south corridor, at the rear of which is a raised area cut out of the living rock, with an east-west altar or bed-like platform carved out of the back wall. On the left before you reach the raised area is a large room, as described by Dr Hawass, and on the right is a small opening in the rock into a large cave chamber, which Dr Hawass refers to as “leading to a descending passage.” Although entirely natural, the room has been partially hewn to give it a more rectilinear appearance. A large natural cave compartment can be found in its northwest corner, while a small hole on the south side of this enormous compartment leads into a cave tunnel that we travelled for some considerable distance. It is here that Salt and Caviglia, and arguably even Vyse and Perring, came in the early nineteenth century. There is no confusion here, we entered a natural cave system that permeates the limestone bedrock of the plateau’s Moqattam formation.
Dr. Hawass: It can be clearly shown that this tomb has been entered recently due to finds of modern debris and gypsum plaster coating the walls, as well as the modern lighting found in one of the chambers. Also, this tomb is known to have been used as a storeroom by George Reisner during his excavations at Giza in the 1910’s to 1920’s.
Skinner-Simpson: Mr. Collins and I were in no doubt that the front part of the tomb has been visited in modern times for the reasons cited by Dr. Hawass. What was in doubt and the cause of our interest was the extent to which the rear or "cave" section of the tomb has been examined in modern times given the extremely unpleasant environment within, and that there appears to be a possible continuation at the furthest point reached.
Dr. Hawass: My academic opinion, based on the offical report, is that this is likely a catacomb cut during the Graeco-Roman Period that was used for the burial of sacred animals, similar to the catacombs at Saqqara and Tuna el-Gebel.
Collins: I agree that the site was indeed the focus of a local bird cult, and it might even be the lost raptor cemetery known to have existed at Giza, and alluded to in the book Divine Creatures by Dr Salima Ikram (2005). Such bird cults flourished initially during the Late Period, and continued to expand during Graeco-Roman times...Even if the tomb was constructed in Graeco-Roman times, there is no reason to conclude that the natural caves were not previously accessible to the outside world.
Dr. Hawass: These burials of sacred animals are well known in Egyptological literature, and were made for the purpose of offering to the gods, they have nothing to do with the idea of a lost civilization or other unscientific ideas that people come up with and circulate on the Internet.
Collins: We are quite aware of the purpose of bird cemeteries, and would not use this, or the existence of the caves, to prove the existence of a lost civilization. What I will state, however, is that the caves perhaps form part of an interconnected cave system that GPR work has suggested exist in the eastern part of the plateau (see Abbas et al, 2006), and that the “several hundred yards” travelled by Salt and Caviglia has to have taken them somewhere. It is my suspicion that the underlying northwest-southeast orientation of the plateau’s Moqattam formation will have directed them into the vicinity of the Second Pyramid, where the four chambers Salt and Caviglia entered, along with the “labyrinthick” passages that continued into the darkness, might still await discovery.
Dr. Hawass: I hope people who wish to learn more about the Giza tombs will consult academic sources, for example books published by scholars such as myself and not rely on unsupported Internet accounts.

Analysis by Rossella Lorenzi

Dr Zahi Hawass revealed the location of the entrance to the so-called ‘Giza Caves

Photo: Giza caves?  copyright:  Andrew and Sue Collins, 2009

Triangles of Death beyond Bermuda Part 1

Recent research, especially a series very abundant on our planet demonstrate that there are at least twelve points that have the same magnetic disturbances known as the "Bermuda Triangle". They are situated on both sides and parallel to the equator.
These points are an enigma, certainly due to natural causes the cosmos, but no less disturbing and fatal

The Bermuda Triangle Mystery full documentry |

Afghanistan, the Gulf and the
Bright Wheels 

Even though the Bermuda Triangle enjoys more celebrity, exist on our plane ta several "corners" or "centers" of magnetic anomalies, which are twelve in number distributed evenly spaced intervals about the parallels 36 ° north and south. As you may recall, was Ivan Sanderson who has dealt with studying these dangerous areas in his book "Invisible Residents", and who first formulated this hypothesis. Although the sample in these areas is not as spectacular as the Bermuda Triangle, we know deserves some surprising events.
These other "zones damned," the electronics of the ships and planes have suffered or cancellations in ference disappeared men and ships and space-time normal suffered strange distortion. Like what happened with the Bermuda Triangle we know nothing about what or who can produce so mysterious disorder.
Afghanistan and the Persian Gulf
Of the 12 areas that are deadly distributed at regular intervals throughout the planet, only two, Afghanistan and Antarctica, are in the continental land mass, and all other navies.
The point terrestrial magnetic disturbances is located in Afghanistan, the Persian Gulf, the southeast, a "mortal rhomboid", centering on 36 ° north and east about 75 °.
The history of disappearances in Afghanistan air is relatively recent, having occurred nearly all of them during the second world war. During the war years (1939-1945) allies, along with Americans, established a route of supply control and flying over Afghanistan. During this period mysteriously disappeared several U.S. aircraft, some of which, according to information revealed later, it seems that carrying loads of gold bullion. Never managed to locate the remains of the aircraft or its crew and was officially reported missing.
More of disappearances, which is being produced in these waters are strange visions of "phosphorescent wheels" underwater. On May 15, 1879, Commander J. E. Pringle, who was traveling in command of the British warship "Vulture" by the Persian Gulf, noted the presence of light waves under the water that moved at breakneck speed, passing under the ship.

General configuration of a typical phosphorescent wheel

Three sets of expanding rings – two circular, one elliptical

Spinning groups of phosphorescent patches

According noted, to the east, the strange phenomenon offered the form of a large spinning wheel with the center in that same direction. The spokes of the giant wheel were bright. And looking to the west could see another similar wheel that rotated in the opposite direction. Before and after this strange sight it seems that the boat sailed through areas covered with some oily substance floating.
Thereafter numerous testimonies from sailors and travelers who passed through these waters were known by various publications.
The "wheels of light" by Charles Fort
The famous American author Charles Fort, in his "Book of the damned," collects large amount of testimony on "wheels of light" in this and other areas.
Despite the similarities between all the events reported by eyewitnesses, it is unclear how it is possible that giant wheels of light are found under the surface of the Gulf and what could be doing in these waters.
To explain these facts, some prestigious authors and researchers have pointed out different hypotheses.
The famous American astronomer Carl Sagan, along with the French authors L. Pauwells and J. Bergier ("The Return of the Witches"), agreed in saying that possibly "in the Sumerian civilization was born, thanks to the arrival of mysterious fish-men, arrived from space and settled deep in the Persian Gulf. These extra visitors land would be called Akpalus and know their existence thanks to Be-scrutiny, a Babylonian priest of the fourth century before Christ.
However, in the Persian Gulf waters that form the southwestern boundary of this zone more or less ramboidal, for almost two hundred years is going to witness strange visions and anomalies in boats that traveled the waters near the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman.
Berosus had access to scrolls and cuneiform tablets, millions of years old, he could read and translated texts in classical Greek.
Carl Sagan based their claims on ancient fragments of Cory, which were compiled from various texts Berosus. By reading these texts we know of the existence of a man-fish called Oanes, who had a body pisciform but walked built and lived as an amphibian. According to describe this exquisite creature, under the head of fish had a second head, and if we had the horn the first "teacher", teaching men to build their houses and starting them in writing, science and art.

Animal-Men, Amphibian Intelligent Beings 

Appeared other beings like Oanes. One was the Anedoto Musaro Oanes, also founded the Persian Gulf, and even fourth anecdote, with the same shape and some traces pisciform humanoids.
The akpalus are represented as "animals, intelligent men," that covered her body with a cap and mantle. (There is an Assyrian cylinder in which is represented Oanes and other figures dressed in this "way". Including one seems to carry back certain "devices").
And logical to think that, given its characteristics, the akpalus came from a planet where water was to be the dominant element of life.
A planet of Sirius?
According to the American researcher Robert K. G. Temple, in his book "The Mystery of the Bell", this planet could be some water that turned around the star Bell.
Bell is a star of first magnitude (1.3 in absolute magnitude) which is 8.7 light years from our planet. There are some sixty years it was known that a star is accompanied by "white dwarf", which was called Bell B, consisting of a super-dense matter and heavy.
However, the most amazing book that reveals the Temple is the existence of a black tribe, the Dogo, who inhabit a territory in the Republic of Mali, they know, over generations, the existence of the star "dwarf" companion Bell .
Identify this "white dwarf" with small and heavy seeds of Digitalis, reaching its plot perfectly elliptical orbit in one of whose points lie almost exactly the Sino A. And also claim that there is a Bell C, which means our technology has failed to discover.

The traditional worship of Syrian
This knowledge is reserved for priests of the tribe and started the worship of them was Bell and reported by Garamantians (ancient people of Libya), of which nothing is known, which in turn received it from the Egyptians, and those of the Sumerians.
The dogo know, since the old days, that Sino Digital or B is too "heavy" and it takes fifty years, the exact figure, on his tour around Sino A.
How did this knowledge to the tribe of dogo? Why the amazing secret was hidden in the heart of Africa? Some researchers assume that so-called Nommo by dogo akpalus were the same planet they were from a Bell C and reported that men who had civilized the incredible discovery.

Amphibians intelligent beings
In his work, Robert K. G. Temple writes: "It is worth noting that in the case of some planets of the Bell system were water, we must seriously consider the possibility that there exist intelligent beings but amphibians.
This would be linked to the legend of Oanes ... and he would be the amphibious Sumerian tradition mentioned by the astronomer Carl Sagan and he was the one who contributed to the civilization of man. In other words, the beings of this kind would be a bit like mermaids and tritons ... and in some ways could be smart like our friends the dolphins. "He continued:" This was the time when it appeared the sea Musar Oanes Anecdote Eritrea, which for the ancients was the body of water that now subdivided into the Persian Gulf, Red Sea and Indian Ocean. "
We also assume that the planet's marine depths inhabited by these beings are amphibians? Or maybe that the successors of the first akpalus continue to visit us? It is difficult to answer questions and to imagine that something is happening.
However, the possibility that the planet's waters are visited visions explain the mysterious lights in the shape of wheels, which move under water and that sometimes emerge to vanish into unknown worlds.

Ghost planes in the Arctic regions

 The Arctic was a place where strange apparitions that have occurred only recently been made known by a number of Swedish researchers.
It is a "ghost planes" that in the years 1932 and 1933, flew over the Scandinavian Peninsula.
Scandinavia is the cultural and historic region of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Scandinavian countries are Norway, Sweden and Denmark, who recognize one another as parts of Scandinavia.
The collective label "Scandinavia" reflects the cultural similarity, and the strong historical ties between these countries despite their political independence. The terms Fennoscandia and Fenno-Scandinavia are sometimes used for a larger region.
According to numerous testimonies, the strange apparatus had the conventional form of large airplanes ashes, which were still capable of performing maneuvers impossible for planes of that time.
Moreover, none of them had distinctive insignia or witnesses and asserted that these strange artifacts emitted rays of light that illuminated the terrain on which they were traveling "as if it were day."
In the early thirties began to accumulate numerous reports of airplanes and dirigibles mysterious unidentified who explored the north of Europe in a systematic way. The Scandinavian governments have begun to take seriously this news and promoted a broad investigation.
No identification possible

Also the military command "intervened in the matter." Thus, April 30, 1934 General Reutersward, head of the region north of Norland, expressed to the international press: "When comparing all reports there is no doubt that it performs an illegal air traffic over our secret military zones.
We have too many comments coming from witnesses worthy of every confidence that describe these enigmatic airplanes, seen from a distance.
And in every case could be made the same observation: these devices showed no insignias or markings that identified them ...
It becomes impossible to explain all these events as fanciful. So the question is: Who steers these devices and who engage invading our airspace? "

The Spitzbergen Flying Saucer

 But the event that made it run more ink and more contradictory opinions provoked was the case with "hard to Spitzberg.
The vast archipelago of Spitzbergen, the place of the incident lies in the Arctic regions in northern Europe and between 76 ° 26 'and 80 ° 50' north latitude and 10 ° 20 'and 32 ° 40' east longitude of Meridian Grenwich. It was discovered by the Normans in 1194, and in 1925 Norway took possession of these territories to their state. Are islands of arctic climate, which are still hunted seals and polar bears, which have rich mines of carbon, iron and plaster.
The island of Spitsbergen is known since time immemorial by peoples of European and Asian arctic regions, appearing references to the Arctic island territories in the Icelandic sagas of the tenth and eleventh centuries, rooted in the traditions of the peoples Vikings (though the identification of those islands with Greenland , Jan Mayen and Svalbard is debatable). The traditions of the peoples of Lapland and the Siberian coast also included references to the Arctic island.
However, the first references appear safe in Russian chronicles of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries they attach to the exploitation of the islands Pomors, which were considered part of Greenland and, therefore, called Grumant (Грумант).
Despite this ancestral knowledge, the existence of the islands was ignored by European intellectuals, who only learned of them by the chronicles of Willem Barentsz expedition that led in 1596 in search of the mythical Northeast Passage to the Far East and India.

Barents Sea is due to the assignment to the island of Spitsbergen name (which means sharp peaks, a reference to the mountains of the island), which ended up stretching for a long time the entire archipelago of Svalbard.
During the period when the islands were known as Spitsbergen, the island that now bears his name was called West Spitsbergen, or Vestspitsbergen.
By decision of the Norwegian State, the archipelago became known as Svalbard, Spitsbergen getting the designation reserved for the island of the same name.
This decision is based on existence since at least 1194, the Viking sagas mention a land of Svalbard (which means cold coast), although it is certain that in reference to the archipelago that now bears his name.
This place was the scene of the incident of the "disk Spitzberg" in 1952.
According to the news that the press reported, some military pilots in Norway, said he saw what looked like a crashed plane in an island of Spitzbergen.
It was a "flying saucer"
The Norwegian Government, after having sent an air patrol rescue, announced that it had been found was not a conventional aircraft, but a "flying saucer" severely damaged, but completely recognizable.
The Norwegian army has created an investigative committee chaired by General Gernod Darnbyl, who studied the case.
But that moment coincided with the policy of secrecy and censorship on the subject of UFOs, as proposed by certain "authorities and experts North Americans and extended to other countries.

The result of all this was a total blackout on the investigation of the "disk Spitzberg"
A few years later, in Greenland, a huge triangular island is covered with a crust of ice over a mile of ice, there was also another strange event.
In 1960, the U.S. atomic base of Thule, super-secret base built under the ice, something inexplicable happened.
On October 5 the base was absolutely unreachable because of a mysterious cut on submarine coaxial cable which produced a total suspension of telecommunications.

 Antarctica, another continent full of mystery and UFOs

The Untold UFO War in Antarctica
The Antarctic is a landmass, whose center is at the South Pole, both geographical and magnetic. As I noted earlier, the Antarctic, along with the zone of Afghanistan, is the second in the continental land mass, where magnetic anomalies are produced.
The mystery of Antarctica is closely related to the enigmatic maps of Piri Reis.
These maps, which were delivered to the Turkish admiral Piri Reis, hesmifério represent part of the planet, especially the American shores, African and European bathed by the Atlantic Ocean. But most astonishing is that these maps reproduced with absolute accuracy, the coasts of Antarctica before being covered by ice and not as a continental mass, but as a set of islands.
The maps of Piri Reis
Thus, Father Daniel Lynch, director of Weston Observatory of Boston College, Head of Seismology of expeditions to Antarctica, said that, in fact, all topographic features that are mapped Pi-ri Kings led some to coincide with the results obtained with ultrasonic probes conducted through the crust of ice over a mile thick, the U.S. Navy.
With regard to reproduction of maps of Piri Reis have to point the theory of some authors, such as Erich Von Daniken, explaining that the distortion introduced the American continent, assuming that it is based on a projection taken from a spacecraft that remain motionless in space hundreds of miles high on the vertical of the Pyramid of Cheops.
Not sure whether or not to support this theory or other and point out that this assumption was used to that, some years, some ufologists claim that there are UFO bases at the South Pole

Underwater UFO bases in Antarctica
For some researchers, most "foreign ships" which were seen over South America, especially Argentina (Patagonia, a hot spot which will give some further data), Chile and Brazil, may proceed submarine bases in water Antarctic.
Despite the obscurity surrounding the Antarctic continent, some data were filtered, surprisingly there is a place where the climate is quite benign, with a vegetation corresponding to a temperate zone and where they could live normally.
This point is surrounded by a "curtain" of magnetic storms that prevent the entry of aircraft.
Unexplained observations at the South Pole
Can be found on the planet a more impassable from the outside and safest possible for visitors?
In July 1965, observations were recorded in the databases that foreign countries like England, Argentina and Chile have established in Antarctica.
The Chilean Army has acknowledged an official announcement, coming from one of its Antarctic bases, the Arturo Prat on the vision of an unidentified flying object, produced on June 19 that year.
The bright object was seen flying in a zigzag fashion and suspended for a while at the same place, was observed by British scientists, Argentines and Chileans.
The vision of this object on Deception Island was also ratified by the staff of the naval base in Orkney, belonging to the Chilean army. As all the testimonies that could be collected, the object was seen for a few seconds, which prevented taking pictures, but it was possible to record certain disturbances in the apparatus of the Meteorological Observatory of Orcadas.

Wednesday, April 20, 2011

The Bosnian Pyramids

The controversy around the Bosnyan Pyramids continues, after the initial reactions of researchers that have indicated they are not built by man, now appear more data and studies that indicate that in fact we might be in the way to see the first European Piramedes. We will expose the two theories in a simple and direct form, leaving space for the reader to draw his own conclusions.

The Natural formation Theory

Flying Over The Bosnian Pyramids

The term Bosnian pyramids has been used for a cluster of natural geological formations sometimes known as flatirons near the Bosnia and Herzegovina town of Visoko, northwest of Sarajevo. The hill named Visočica became the focus of international attention in October 2005 following a news-media campaign promoting the idea that they are human-made and the largest ancient pyramids on Earth.
Scientific investigations of the site show that the so-called pyramids are natural formations and that there are no signs of human building involved. Additionally, scientists have criticised the Bosnian authorities for supporting the pyramid claim saying, "This scheme is a cruel hoax on an unsuspecting public and has no place in the world of genuine science."
The 213-metre (699 ft) Visočica hill, upon which the Old town of Visoki was once sited, is roughly pyramid-shaped. The idea that it constitutes an ancient artificial edifice was publicised by Bosnian author and metalworker Semir Osmanagić. His subsequent excavations at the site have uncovered what he claims to be a paved entrance plateau and tunnels, as well as stone blocks and ancient mortar which he has suggested once covered the structure. Osmanagić has claimed that the dig involved an international team of archaeologists from Australia, Austria, Ireland, Scotland and Slovenia. However, many archaeologists he named have stated they had not agreed to participate and were never at the site. The dig began in April 2006, and has involved reshaping the hill to make it look like a Mayan step pyramid.


Osmanagić's interpretation

Semir Osmanagić

Osmanagić has named Visočica hill the "Pyramid of the Sun", and two nearby hills, identified from satellite and aerial photography, the "Pyramid of the Moon" and the "Pyramid of the (Bosnian) Dragon" (another two, "Pyramid of the Earth" and "Pyramid of Love" have been mentioned in reports). Newspaper reports have quoted Osmanagić as claiming that they were constructed by ancient Illyrian inhabitants of the Balkans as early as 12,000 BC. But in an interview with Philip Coppens in Nexus (April-May 2006), Osmanagić attempted to clarify his previous statements, stating he was misquoted: he does claim that they were most likely constructed by the Illyrians, who he claims lived in the area from 12,000 BC to 500 BC, and that the pyramid was therefore most likely constructed between those two dates - not in 12,000 BC.
Osmanagić claims the excavation has produced evidence of building blocks as well as tunnels. Additionally Osmanagić claims to have found tunnels in the hillside which he interprets as ventilation shafts.
Osmanagić believes his discoveries around Visoko will have further implications for world prehistory. By comparing the varying heights of the tallest pyramids in Mexico and Egypt with Visočica hill, he concluded that the pyramids were all built by the same people, with the Bosnian Pyramid being the last to be built. However, upon further thought he has decided that this dating mechanism may not be reliable and has now announced Visočica hill could be "The mother of all Pyramids", a claim he says would be corroborated by the existence of sacred geometry and further numerological study of messages left in the pyramid for future generations.
Osmanagić estimates that the Sun pyramid stands 722 feet (220 m) high (or, depending upon the report, either 230 feet (70 m) high or 328 feet (100 m) high). If it is 722 feet, it would be one third taller than the Great Pyramid of Giza, making it the largest pyramidal structure on Earth.
The current target of the project is to complete excavation by 2012. This is in order to "break a cloud of negative energy, allowing the Earth to receive cosmic energy from the centre of the galaxy" according to Osmanagić,who also hopes that it will be listed as UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Scientific explanations
Osmanagić's claims, widely reported in the mass media, have been challenged by a number of experts, who have accused him of promoting pseudo-scientific notions and damaging archaeological sites with his excavations. Amar Karapus, a curator at the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo, said "When I first read about the pyramids I thought it was a very funny joke. I just couldn't believe that anyone in the world could believe this." Penn State University Professor Garrett Fagan is quoted as saying "They should not be allowed to destroy genuine sites in the pursuit of these delusions[...] It’s as if someone were given permission to bulldoze Stonehenge to find secret chambers of lost ancient wisdom underneath."
Boston University's Curtis Runnels, an expert in prehistoric Greece and the Balkans states that, "Between 27,000 and 12,000 years ago, the Balkans were locked in the last Glacial maximum, a period of very cold and dry climate with glaciers in some of the mountain ranges. The only occupants were Upper Paleolithic hunters and gatherers who left behind open-air camp sites and traces of occupation in caves. These remains consist of simple stone tools, hearths, and remains of animals and plants that were consumed for food. These people did not have the tools or skills to engage in the construction of monumental architecture."
Enver Imamović of the University of Sarajevo, a former director of the National Museum of Sarajevo, concerned that the excavations will damage historic sites such as the medieval royal capital Visoki, said that the excavations would "irreversibly destroy a national treasure". Excavations by archaeologists not related to the Foundation in the summer of 2008 uncovered medieval artefacts and led to renewed calls for the government to cancel Osmanagić's digging permits.
In a letter to the editor of The Times on 25 April 2006, Professor Anthony Harding, president of the European Association of Archaeologists, referred to Osmanagić's theories as "wacky" and "absurd" and expressed concern that insufficient safeguards were in place to protect Bosnia's "rich heritage" from "looting and unmonitored or unauthorised development". After visiting the site himself, Harding reported, "we saw areas of natural stone (a breccia), with fissures and cracks; but no sign of anything that looked like archaeology."
On 8 May 2006, members of the Geological team investigating Visočica on behalf of the Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation held a press conference in Tuzla to present the results of their research. The academics, from the Faculty of Mining and Geology at the University of Tuzla and led by Professor Dr. Sejfudin Vrabac, concluded that the hill is a natural geological formation, made of clastic sediments of layered composition and varying thickness, and that its shape is a consequence of endodynamical and exodynamical processes in the post-Miocene era.
According to Professor Vrabac, who specializes in paleogeology, there are dozens of similar morphological formations in the Sarajevo-Zenica mining basin alone. The Geological team report on Visocica, based on the data collected in six drill holes at 3 to 17 metre depths, is supported by the Research and Teaching Council of the Faculty of Mining and Geology, as well as the Association of Geologists of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
In June 2006, Zahi Hawass's name became linked to the excavations as recommending a supposed expert, Aly Abd Alla Barakat, to investigate the hills. Upon being contacted Hawass denied any involvement, accusing Osmanagić of "giving out false information", and clarifying that Barakat "knows nothing about Egyptian pyramids".
The Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation has said that Barakat inspected the hills and stated, "My opinion is that this is a type of pyramid, probably a primitive pyramid." In November 2007 an English version of a 2006 report by Barakat was posted on the foundation site. Osmanagić also invited geologist and alternative archaeologist Robert Schoch to visit the site. In a preliminary report he concluded that there were natural geological explanations for all the features claimed to be artificial by Osmanagić. In the case of the tunnels he further added:"The much-touted “ancient inscriptions” seem not to be ancient at all. I was told by a reliable source that the inscriptions were not there when members of the “pyramid team” initially entered the tunnels less than two years ago. The “ancient inscriptions” had been added since, perhaps non-maliciously, or perhaps as a downright hoax. Schoch's website documents "extreme damage being done by the way the excavations are being performed," and accuses Osmanagić of launching "a deliberate smear campaign."
In 2007 a report by Egyptologist Nabil Mohamed Abdel Swelim was publicised by the Archaeological Park which said that the Pyramid of the Sun was the world's largest pyramid. After two visits to Visoko he released a report in 2007 in which he concluded: “Arguments in favor or in disfavor have no effect on the fact that the pyramid concept and the properties are there for everyone to see”. However, in 2010 he released a report in which he clarified that he does not claim it is a man-made pyramid, but rather that he uses the term for any feature, natural or artificial, which is a geometric pyramid

Supporting The Man Made Pyramid Theory

Artifical conglomerate blocks at Visocica placed one above another

Fine sandstone casing at Visocica, detail

Concrete layers composing the pyramid walls, detail
Footprint in the concrete found in the escavations

Bosnia's Sun Pyramid: The Concrete Pyramid Theory Confirmed! 

Bosnian Pyramids - New Evidence 2010

New laboratory analysis confirmed that Bosnia’s Sun Pyramid is made out of artificial concrete

Work at Pljesevica Hill revealed more stone tiles which are covering the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon.

Recent results from independent laboratory analysis achieved by Italy’s Polytechnic University of Turin (Politecnico di Torino – POLITO) confirmed that the samples of sandstone and conglomerate blocks taken last summer at Bosnia’s Sun Pyramid is ancient concrete made with artificially (man-made) aggregates.
In the new analysis made by the Chemistry Department of the POLITO both chemical and diffractometry analysis confirmed that the concrete material consists in inert material with a binding material that seems similar to Roman concrete.
The laboratory analysis also revealed that the sandstone samples collected from the covering of the concrete layers (the outer casing) of Bosnia's Sun Pyramid have the same composition of the concrete itself. The only difference consists in the inert material used for its manufacturing which results much smaller (fine-grained).

Outside walls of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun made of the concrete conglomerate blocks, Northern side, July 2008

The report also says that the binding aggregates of the concrete (incl. the sandstone---casing) seem to be made by high temperature heating of clay (kaolinite and muscovite) and limestone materials (dolomite and calcite) which is typical for the chemical binding process that transforms those minerals into concrete-like binding material.
Photo: Sandal/shoe footprint left in the concrete material by ancient pyramid builders
After the Kemal Kapetanovic Institute from the University in Zenica and the French Geopolymer Institute leaded by Prof. Dr. Joseph Davidovits, another independent and renown institution confirmed the use of artifical  materials for the construction of the Bosnian pyramids.

Concrete blocks on the Northern side of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun

Digging at location No. 20 is the most visited by tourists at the moment

If we see there are two kinds of blocks. One looks like construction plates with clear edges and sides another looks like monolith line of concrete or something similar to concrete.
Pyramid of the Sun is the most interesting object because many factors and features prove pyramid theory. 

- seismic analysis
- radar and geo-radar
- archaeology
- geology 

Energetic Fields of the Bosnian Pyramids

Dr. Aly Barakat, the geologist from Cairo researched all surroundings of the Sun pyramid for some weeks and he didn’t find something which can be similar with the blocks of the Sun pyramid anywhere. The Construction material of the Sun pyramid is very unusual and untypical for natural process, therefore dr. Barakat came to conclusion that Visocica (Sun pyramid) is a natural hill shaped by man and covered by stone blocks thousands years ago. Whereas Semir Osmanagic and his team continue to consider that all pyramid is constructed from the blocks. In fact that only a few area of colossal monument was cleared from soil and vegetation, the techniques couldn’t look into a deep of the pyramid to see what is located inside. Therefore it can be real that all pyramid of the Sun is consisted from the blocks.

Tunnels Under the Pyramid of the Sun


Deep in the tunnels under the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, expert miners from the nearby Tuzla mine, who were the first to explore these underground areas, found ventilation holes.
The oxygen level all throughout the tunnels is around 20%, which is more or less the optimal percentage for unobstructed continuation of the tunnel explorations. It shows a great deal of planning that went into this project and also the engineering skills that the builders of this structure had.

Two large (approx 5 tons in weight), man made, round sand-blocks were found in the tunnels. The team is working on digging out these pieces after which they will take photos and send for analysis. These sand-blocks could be the first related archeological artifacts found.
Stalactites, the icicle-shaped mineral deposits are found hanging from the roof of some parts of the tunnel. These stalactites will help the researches get a better idea of the age of the tunnels.
In the tunnels there are several 90 degree intersections which are parallel to the sides of the world: east -west, north-south. It is evident that the construction of this object was a large engineering challenge.

The Bosnyan Pyramids Foundation has been constantly working since 2006 removing the debris from the network of the underground tunnels at Ravne and under the KTK-factory in Visoko town. The Foundation's primary goal was to construct the supporting beams within the main tunnel that leads to the Pyramid of the Sun (about 2.5 km) which will enable the Foundation's team to enter the pyramid.
During the year 2007, the Foundation's team has found a network of  tunnels and intersections, leading from the main tunnel. Their purpose is unknown. They are closed with dry walls. Not only one, but many side tunnels, all sealed by dry walls. Why? Most of these tunnels will be left untouched, meaning the removal of the debris and the stone walls which are closing the tunnels will be done later on, after the entry into the pyramid. 

However, the mysteries have not been solved yet:
  • who made these tunnels?
  • Who and why were they closing the preexisting network of the side passageways, the intersections;
  • what did they want to hide? What is this secret about from the distant past?
There are several megalithic blocks found within the main tunnel leading from Ravne toward the Pyramid of the Sun. They were left on the original locations where they were found for further archaeological analysis.

entrance to Ravne tunnel

side tunnel in genuine status

dry wall closing the side tunnel

stalagtites in Ravne tunnel 2900ys.old

monolith Ravne with inscriptions
 Artefact found in KTK tunnel

There exists a drawing of underground water ponds inside Visocica hill. These water ponds have been detected from outside by ultrasound measurements. The existence of caves and cavities has also been confirmed by scientific measurements.

But will there be a man-made chamber? Or a tomb of ancient times? The digging goes on . Tons of debris and gravel will be removed until the excavation team reaches these cavities.

Ravne Tunnels: Finally! A Breakthrough.

 By Dr.sci. Sam Semir Osmanagić

Photo: Archaeologist Sara Acconci and Semir Osmanagic inside the newly discovered tunnel sectionBy Dr.sci. Sam Semir Osmanagić

It’s been almost five years since I first entered underground tunnel "Ravne". At that time, it was called a "cave". There was a small ½ meter entrance and one shallow tunnel which ended after 130 meters. That was a time when I announced to the World discovery of the first European pyramids in Visoko: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun and Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon.
This was a one-man project in 2005 with me paying for all costs and analysis.
Based on my experiences with the pyramids in China (Shaanxi province), Mexico (Teotihuacan) and Giza (Saqqara and Giza), I knew that we would discover labyrinth under the Bosnian pyramids. That’s exactly what I wrote in my book about the pyramids discovery in October, 2005. My hypothesis was faced with a lot of skepticism and unpleasant labels by university professors from Sarajevo and elsewhere.
So, when I entered "a cave" for the first time it was obvious to me that it was a man-made construction. I decided to start archaeological work inside. We’ve been cleaning existing tunnels ever since. Instead of one small tunnel we realized that a whole underground network of tunnels and chambers is hidden 5-25 meters underground.
Two mysteries have followed us from the beginning: who built this huge network and who and why sealed off all side tunnels?

Photo: Masssive sidewalls of the new tunnel section, detailNamely, all tunnels were filled up with river bed material (rocks, pebbles, sand, clay) and then sealed up with the drywalls.

Some of the experts who came to Visoko, such as geologists Robert Schoch from Boston and El Anbaawy from Cairo, claimed that this network was water-made. Bosnian geologists from Tuzla who never came to visit the tunnels talked about the coal mining facility. Bosnian archaeologist Enver Imamovic thought it was Roman gold mine. Museum curator Zilka Kujundzic mentioned possibility of Yugoslav Army hide outs. People from Visoko thought that this was a Middle Age escape tunnel for Bosnian kings and Queen Katarina.
Well, they were all wrong.
As I hypothesized, this was a pre-historical underground labyrinth that connect all pyramids and other places of interests. Radiocarbon analysis that we performed in Sweden (University of Upsala), Germany (Kiel University) and Poland (Gliwice Institute) have shown the age older than any other known advance culture on Bosnian soil (3.091-5.080 years).

Photo: Drywall, detailBut, real challenge for our team was the fact that we needed to choose correct tunnel that will lead us to the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun. We managed to do that using compass and topographical maps. At the same time we had to remove hundreds of tons of fill up material and make this place safe for researchers and visitors.

We've spent tens of thousands of working hours cleaning and securing the tunnels in a period December, 2006 – December, 2010. Length of 400 meters have been secured by the wooden support. Considering the fact that we had another 90% or 2,5 kilometers to the pyramid I was ready to patiently work another 30 years until I get to the largest pyramid on the Planet.
Summer of 2010 was very successful. We had 500 volunteers from 30 countries who worked with us. Some of them helped us discover the underground chambers (50 sq.m., 30 sq.m. and 20 sq.m.) and first underground lake. It gave new elements to this underground structure.
Month of November we spent cleaning the third underground chamber. From this chamber we could see six sealed side tunnels leading to different directions. I decided to move forward going South, which is a way to Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun.

Photo: Wall corner, detailAnd then, on November 30th, moment of excitement and surprise.

After we removed two drywalls in front of us and several tons of fill up material, we discovered the hole in the wall. We widened the hole. It was dark.
We entered inside. On the other side, there was another drywall and several tons of fill up material.
But, further to the left and to the right we noticed clean tunnels going in two directions, South and North. No fill up material. Height at the intersection was 2,5 meters.
We moved forward, first North. The ceiling came lower, to 1,3 meters. In front of us there was a half-circled tunnel with no visible end. Tunnel was filled with 20-30 cm of water. Width of the tunnel was same everywhere. We moved through the water. It was exceptional feeling.
Human foot has not entered this tunnel for thousands of years!
On both sides of the walls, we could notice drywalls and more sealed side tunnels. But, the one we were walking on, was completely free and clean. In one area, on side walls, we could notice layer of clay. Somebody used the tools to remove clay to get the same width of the tunnel.

Photo: Drywall obstructing another tunnel ramification, detailWe came back and started walking in the tunnel that lead to the South which is a direction of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun. It was even more exciting. We discovered untouched longest drywalls so far. They were made perfectly. Bottom end completely match the top raw.

What a craftsmanship!
It would be extremely hard to make something similar today without mortar. Height in this section rose to 2 meters. We walked 150 meters in Northern direction and over 200 meters in Southern direction.
No obstacles in front of us. Everything is open!
Is it possible that we discovered the main tunnel? If this is a case, it was well hidden and secured from the outside world. We had to remove thousand tons of material to get there.
What if this tunnel leads directly to the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun? It is possible because it has a good direction.
Even if we find more sealed sections in front of us and we need to remove more material, we still saved years of work. At least five hundred meters free of fill up material that we discovered a few days ago is a breakthrough that we needed.
Foundation’s leading archaeologist dr. Sara Acconci flew from Milan, Italy to Visoko and started to document this discovery.

Photo: Massive square stone block built into the sidewall, detail 

We made a plan to start working on Southern section and leave Northern section in original state. We will need to pump water out, remove the dirt and mud, and than secure the ceilings with wooden support.
Mayor of town of Visoko came first day to visit us. He was delighted. Local TV followed. Next day we had a state TV. Major Serbian TV showed up, as well…
We’re looking for exciting winter here in the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids.

Bosnyan Pyramids 2010
Visoko (Bosnia) Tunnel, 2010 - IV volunteer shift

artifacts and more conclusive evidence