- "neither by ship nor on foot would you find
- the marvellous road to the assembly of the Hyperboreans."
HyperboreaIn Greek mythology the Hyperboreans were a mythical people who lived far to the north of Thrace. The Greeks thought that Boreas, the North Wind, lived in Thrace, and that therefore Hyperborea was an unspecified region in the northern lands that lay beyond the north wind. Their land, called Hyperborea or Hyperboria — "beyond the Boreas" — was perfect, with the sun shining twenty-four hours a day, which - if true - suggests a possible location within the Arctic Circle.
- Never the Muse is absent
- from their ways: lyres clash and flutes cry
- and everywhere maiden choruses whirling.
- Neither disease nor bitter old age is mixed
- in their sacred blood; far from labor and battle they live.
- - Pindar, Tenth Pythian Ode
LegendsAlone among the Twelve Olympians, Apollo was venerated among the Hyperboreans, the Hellenes thought: he spent his winter amongst them. For their part the Hyperboreans sent mysterious gifts, packed in straw, which came first to Dodona and then were passed from tribe to tribe until they came to Apollo's temple on Delos (Pausanias). Abaris, Hyperborean priest of Apollo, was a legendary wandering healer and seer. Theseus visited the Hyperboreans, and Pindar transferred Perseus's encounter with Medusa there from its traditional site in Libya, to the dissatisfaction of his Alexandrian editors.
Along with Thule, Hyperborea was one of several terrae incognitae to the Greeks and Romans, where Pliny and Herodotus, as well as Virgil and Cicero, reported that people lived to the age of one thousand and enjoyed lives of complete happiness. Hecataeus of Abdera collated all the stories about the Hyperboreans current in the fourth century BC and published a lengthy treatise on them, lost to us, but noted by Diodorus Siculus (ii.47.1-2). Much of the detail concerning their understanding of the Hyperboreans the Greeks attributed to Aristeas. According to Herodotus (4.13), Aristeas had written a hexameter poem (now lost) about a journey to the Issedones. Beyond these lived the one-eyed Arimaspians, further on there were gold-guarding griffins, and beyond these the Hyperboreans. Hesiod mentioned the Hyperboreans, Herodotus reported, though the text is now lost, "and Homer also in the Epigoni, if that be really a work of his". Also, the sun was supposed to rise and set only once a year in Hyperborea; which would place it above or upon the Arctic Circle, or, more generally, in the arctic polar regions.
In maps based on reference points and descriptions given by Strabo, Hyperborea, shown variously as a peninsula or island, is located beyond France and has a greater latitudinal than longitudinal extent. Other descriptions put it in the general area of the Ural Mountains
From east to west: Celts as HyperboreansSix classical Greek authors also came to identify these mythical people at the back of the North Wind with their Celtic neighbours in the north: Antimachus of Colophon, Protarchus, Heraclides Ponticus, Hecataeus of Abdera, Apollonius of Rhodes and Posidonius of Apamea. The way the Greeks understood their relationship with non-Greek peoples was significantly moulded by the way myths of the Golden Age were transplanted unto the contemporary scene, especially in the context of Greek colonisation and trade. As the Rhipean mountains of the mythical past were identified with the Alps of northern Italy, there was at least a geographic rationale for identifying the Hyperboreans with the Celts living in and beyond the Alps, or at least the Hyperborean lands with the lands inhabited by the Celts. A reputation for feasting and a love of gold may have reinforced the connection
|From a 1507 Ruysch map, showing the islands around the North Pole, and the Hyperborean region.|
Modern interpretationsAs with other legends of this sort, selected details can be reconciled with modern knowledge. Above the Arctic Circle, from the time of the vernal equinox to the time of the autumnal equinox, the sun can shine for twenty-four hours a day; at the extremes (that is, the Poles), it rises and sets only once a year, possibly leading to the erroneous conclusion that a "day" for such persons is a year long, and therefore that living a thousand days would be the same as living a thousand years.
Since Herodotus places the Hyperboreans beyond the Massagetae and Issedones, both Central Asian peoples, it appears that his Hyperboreans may have lived in Siberia. Heracles sought the golden-antlered hind of Artemis in Hyperborea. As the reindeer is the only deer species of which females bear antlers, this would suggest an arctic or subarctic region. Following J.D.P. Bolton's location of the Issedones on the south-western slopes of the Altay mountains, Carl P.Ruck places Hyperborea beyond the Dzungarian Gate into northern Xinjiang, noting that the Hyperboreans were probably Chinese.
Amber arrived in Greek hands from some place known to be far to the north. Avram Davidson proposed the theory that Hyperborea was derived from a logical (though erroneous) explanation by the Greeks for the fact that embedded inside the amber arriving in their cities by trade with northern, cold countries were insects which obviously originated in a warm climate.
Not aware of the explanation offered by modern science (i.e. that these insects had lived in times when the climate of northern Europe was much warmer, their bodies preserved unchanged in the amber) the Greeks came up with the idea that north countries being cold was due to the cold breath of Boreas, the North Wind. Therefore, should one be able to get "beyond Boreas" one would find a warm and sunny land.
Identification as HyperboreansNorthern Europeans (Scandinavians), when confronted with classical Greco-Roman culture in the Mediterranean, identified themselves with the Hyperboreans by neglecting the traditional aspect of a perpetually sunny land beyond the north. This idea was especially strong during the 17th century in Sweden, where the later representatives of the ideology of Gothicism declared the Scandinavian peninsula both the lost Atlantis and the Hyperborean land. The north of the Scandinavian peninsula is crossed by the Arctic Circle, north of which there are sunless days during the winter and sunlit nights during the summer. Others have identified Hyperborea with Britain. Diodorus Siculus citing the work of Hecataeus "and certain others" appears to suggest Hyperborea is in fact Britain on account of it being specifically an island in the sea north of Gaul warmed by what could be a reference to the Gulf Stream. Diodorus says,
In the regions beyond the land of the Celts there lies in the ocean an island no smaller than Sicily. This island, the account continues, is situated in the north and is inhabited by the Hyperboreans, who are called by that name because their home is beyond the point whence the north wind (Boreas) blows; and the island is both fertile and productive of every crop, and has an unusually temperate climate.Western European culture equally self-identified as Hyperborean; thus Washington Irving, in elaborating on Astoria in the Pacific Northwest, was of the opinion that,
While the fiery and magnificent Spaniard, inflamed with the mania for gold, has extended his discoveries and conquests over those brilliant countries scorched by the ardent sun of the tropics, the adroit and buoyant Frenchman, and the cool and calculating Briton, have pursued the less splendid, but no less lucrative, traffic in furs amidst the hyperborean regions of the Canadas, until they have advanced even within the Arctic Circle.In this vein the self-described "Hyperborean Company" (Hyperboreisch-römische Gesellschaft) were a group of northern European scholars who were studying classical ruins in Rome, founded in 1824 by Theodor Panofka, Otto Magnus von Stackelberg, August Kestner and Eduard Gerhard. Friedrich Nietzsche referred to his sympathetic readers as Hyperboreans in The Antichrist (written 1888, published 1895) "Let us look each other in the face. We are Hyperboreans — we know well enough how remote our place is." He quoted Pindar and added "Beyond the North, beyond the ice, beyond death — our life, our happiness."
The term "Hyperborean" still sees some jocular contemporary use in reference to any groups of people who live in a cold climate. Under the Library of Congress Classification System, the letter subclass PM includes "Hyperborean Languages", a catch-all category that refers to all the linguistically unrelated languages of peoples living in Arctic regions, such as the Inuit.
Hyperborea in modern esoteric thoughtH.P. Blavatsky, Rene Guenon, Lokmanya Tilak and Julius Evola all shared the belief in the Hyperborean, polar origins of humankind and a subsequent solidification and devolution. According to these esoterists, Hyperborea was the Golden Age polar center of civilization and spirituality; mankind does not rise from the ape, but progressively devolves into the apelike condition as it strays physically and spiritually from its mystical otherworldly homeland in the Far North, succumbing to the demonic energies of the South Pole, the greatest point of materialization (see Joscelyn Godwin, Arktos: The Polar Myth).
The Belarussian writer Ales Adamovich, wrote a book called "The punitive squads : Hyperboreans' life" (1980).
Hyperborea (Svarga, Jambudvipa) - northern native land of mankind
Such outlines the northern mainland could have only in Eocene epoch (58 or 55-34 million years ago), and, perhaps, even in the beginning of this period.
Hyperborea - northern native land of mankind. It is also Svarga or Blue Svarga from Indian and slavonic legends. It is also Jambudvipa from ancient Indian and Buddhist texts. How much investigations were spent to prove the existence of mysterious Hyperborea. How much different judgements exist where is to search its remains. And all is vain - the northern mainland persistently does not wish to open the secrets. Great volume of my investigations and considerable part of my books " Disappeared inhabitants of the Earth" and " Battles of ancient gods" somehow or other too relate to Hyperborea. And I very much hope that I managed to approach at least a little to the solution of its secret. The basic error of the majority of explorers of this mysterious mainland is their initial confidence that Hyperborea existed ten thousand years ago and has perished in the result of the great catastrophe and the deluge which occured approximately 12,5 thousand years ago. However, geological investigations of Arctic regions and deep sea drilling of a bottom of Arctic ocean have convincingly shown that at this time there were no large massifs of land in the north. If life still existed here (and judging by historical evidences and archeological excavations related to migration of Indo-Aryans southerly, it really existed) this life should concentrate on small islands heated with thermal sources and active volcanoes. But in Paleocene and the beginning of early Eocene (66-55 million years ago) Hyperborea - Svarga - Jambudvipa was situated not only on the bulk of Arctic regions, but also on the considerable extents of Europe, the North America and Asia, stretching out even to Tibet! And it seems that during this time the great civilisation of white gods - adityas together with "celestial musicians and dancers" gandharvas and apsaras and "great wise men" vidyadharas, charanas and siddhs resided on it.. At this time (and only at this time) around the modern North pole, according to deep-sea drilling, palm-trees grew and pineapples, mangos and avocados ripened - and about this it is repeatedly spoken in descriptions of Hyperborea! Even more surprising is that in the Old Indian epos and Puranas perfect descriptions of geography of northern mainland Jambudvipa (Hyperborea) with the direction of mountain systems, lakes and seas and oceans washing this continent were saved. And what wonderful descriptions of the capital of Hyperborea - the city of gods of Amaravati are, where "neither heat, nor chill do not exhaust", and environing it parks and gardens with ponds covered by "lotuses marvellous and white lilies fragrant".
From rather old times (at least, from III millenary BC) different people had a belief in a "lost paradise" - a certain mysterious land or mysterious islands where time as though stopped. There was eternal youth on that land and blissful people lived on it who never grew old. That mysterious land was the country of universal prosperity and happiness, and anybody in it never knew misfortunes and griefs. There did not know what crying is, and only laughter and noise of universal merriment everywhere sounded (read further...) Avalon - a perished land or a place in the Other world
"This wonderful island is environed with ocean; there is no need in anything there; there is no theft, or enemies in an ambush. There is no snow there; there is no drought in summer and frosts in winter there, but the indestructible world and harmony reigns, and perfect warm of perpetual spring. There is a lot of flowers there: lilies, roses and violets; apple there bears flowers and fruits on the same branch. A youth and a girl live there together without mud and shame. An old age is unknown there; neither needs, nor diseases - all there is the essence of pleasure. Anybody does not hold something only for himself one there". "Acts of kings of Britain" ("Gesta Regum Britanniae"). ... This source, probably, is the best description of dominating in those days notions about of island or islands of blessed, or immortal, or happy, etc.
Hyperborea - Svarga -Jambudvipa.
The world in which gods and demons livedDespite the prevalent opinion that all gods were inhabitants of heaven, their larger part lived on land, in water or underground. According to Indian and slavonic legends, gods-incomers (adityas/devas and Svarozhichi - svarozhichs) lived in the land (kingdom) of Indra/Svarog - Svarga/Blue Svarga, the capital of which the majestic city of gods Amaravati was. In spite of the fact that Old Indian written information sources point (indicate) to different location of Svarga and Amaravati - from the superior planets (Satjaloka, Maharloka, Svargaloka) to some area between the Earth and the Sun, of heaven or of the earth surface, in the Second and the Third books of the "Mahabharata" (Sabhaparva and Aranyakaparva) more than convincing arguments are given in favour of that Svarga, including Meru mount (Amaravati was on the top of it), Mandara and adjacent mounts with forests, gardens, parks and orchards, was on the Earth (on land). Here is how the land of Indra is described in the "Aranyakaparva" ( read further...)
The earliest maps of the Earth have been charted in PalaeogeneIn many ancient texts Jambudvipu environed by oceans is very detailed described - an ancient continent having a rounded form and stretched in the south to India (or to Tibet which was in this place before India). In its central part there was Meru mount (Sumeru) identified with the world centre, or the North pole. Such continent only Hyperborea cold be and only in Paleocene time (when there was no inner sea in its central part yet) or in Eocene time (when Meru mount was in the middle of an inner sea). In any event, it was not earlier than 66 million years and not later than 34 million years ago (most likely, not later than 45-40 million years ago)... The very detailed description of geography of this continent in the Old Indian literature speaks that there existed then some highly-developed civilisation on it which had excellent cartographers and has managed to save data about this country during subsequent 40 or even 60 million years ( read further...)
Moon - a fragment of Hyperborea!?
Some years ago an ironical notice in some material about Hyperborea that it was searched everywhere except as on Moon had caught my eye. It has appeared prophetical.... The strange thing - destiny. Sometimes she plays with us malicious jokes, and at times gives such surprises that the heart with joy is ready to jump out of the chest. Here and with me there was something similar. I had finished the chapter about separation of Moon from the Earth (the book " Battles of ancient gods") and had gone to look a film about Moon, to rest a little . And fancy my agitation when less than in a half an hour I had heard that the hypothesis just stated by me received all new and new confirmations. The main from them - equal age of the Earth and Moon (approximately 4,5 billion years), presence on Moon the same rocks, as on the Earth, and availability on Moon typical earthly elements of relief - mountain ridge and gorges (canyons). Further - it is more. Having viewed news on Internet, I had seen a large quantity of pages telling about ostensibly classified as secret by NASA photos of ruins of an ancient city on Moon, and then photos itself had also appeared to my look. All it was so interesting that I had decided in more details to rummage in materials on geology of Moon. And the time expended on it had not gone to waste ( read further...)
Amaravati, the capital of Svarga-Hyperborea-Jambudvipa (fragment of the "Mahabharata")In the fragment presented below one of the most poetical descriptions of the city of gods ( adityas) Amaravati situated on the polar mount Meru, which was one of main cities of Hyperborea - Svarga - Jambudvipa, is given. Read and take pleasure in the environment, which was on the Northern pole thirty or forty million years ago and which is confirmed by geological investigations ( read further...)
very interesting Greek scriptures that i am still studying representing the Hyperborean Hollow Earth entrance
Journey To The Hollow Earth