The underground Complex of Osówka is situated just over a kilometre north-east of the village of Kolce, and at the same distance north of the village of Sierpnica.
Construction work commenced there in the summer of 1943. In time, a massive system of concrete passageways, reinforcements and halls was constructed. The objective of the project was kept secret. Some claim it was to become a secret headquarter of Adolf Hitler. Others maintain that these were to become workshops for an underground armament factory, where a secret weapon was to be manufactured. Most of the work was performed by the prisoners of the Gross-Rosen concentration camp.
The over-ground part of the Osówka Complex makes for the outer infrastructure of the underground facilities. The level of completion of the work makes the site the leader in the ranking of the most completed over-ground facilities of the "Riese" (German for a giant) project in the Sowie Mountains.
Of these, the most interesting are the tow objects, customarily named Kasyno (Casino) and Siłownia (Power Plant). The Kasyno is 50 metres long.
It is equipped with window holes, a monolithic reinforced concrete roof, chimney ducts, installation pipes, as well as external heat insulation from chip-and-concrete boards. The ceiling was constructed in the form of a trough, which was to be filled with soil and plants at a later stage. Siłownia, on the other hand, is a concrete block consisting of containers and rooms, complete with steel-clamped hatch doors.
The Osówka Complex is located within the administration boundaries of the town of Głuszyca, in the District of Wałbrzych. It is considered to be the most interesting and the largest complex of that kind in the Sowie Mountains.
In the presence of the increasing Allied air raids Nazi Germany moved a large part of its strategic armaments production into the assumed safety of the District of Sudetenland. In September 1943 a project was created to construct Hitler's headquarters in Książ Castle and underground factories below the Owl Mountains. For this purpose the Schlesische Industriegemeinschaft AG (Silesian Industrial Company) was established in autumn 1943 with headquarters in Jedlina-Zdrój.
The plans included adaptation works in Książ Castle, the creation of the underground complex below the castle, the construction of tunnels and large underground halls at several locations in the Owl Mountains. The rocks of the mountains were drilled and blasted with explosives and the resulting caverns were reinforced by concrete and steel. Then a network of roads, a narrow gauge railway, water supply, sewerage, electricity and telephone lines were put into place. For this purpose mining specialists were employed, mostly Germans, Italians, Ukrainians and Czechs but the majority of the work was done by forced labourers (chiefly Poles and Russians) and POWs (Italians and Russians). In November 1943 labour camps were established in Jedlinka, Głuszyca Górna, Walim and Kolce.
Dissatisfied with the progress of the project, in April 1944 supervision of construction was handed over to the Organisation Todt headquartered in Jedlina-Zdrój. Prisoners of the nearby concentration camp were assigned to forced labour. They were deployed in thirteen camps and a hospital in the vicinity of the complexes. The network of these camps has been named Arbeitslager Riese (List of subcamps of Arbeitslager Riese) and was part of the Gross-Rosen concentration camp. Administration of Arbeitslager Riese and the camp commander (SS-Hauptsturmführer Albert Lütkemeyer) were located in AL Wüstegiersdorf. From December 1944 to January 1945 the prisoners were guarded by 853 SS troops.
According to incomplete data at least 13,000 prisoners worked for the project, most of them transferred from Auschwitz concentration camp. The documents allow the identification of 8,995 prisoners. All of them were Jews, about 70 percent from Hungary, the rest from Poland, Greece, Romania, Czechoslovakia, the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. They bored tunnels inside mountains, built roads and railway tracks, worked in the transportation of building materials.
According to Albert Speer, Minister of Armaments and War Production for the Third Reich:
And in 1944 he [Adolf Hitler] had two underground headquarters blasted into mountains in Silesia and Thuringia, the project tying up hundreds of indispensable mining specialists and thousands of workmen. (...) According to Point 18 of the Führerprotokoll, June 20, 1944, I reported to the Fuehrer that "at the moment a good 28,000 workers are building additions to the Fuehrer's headquarters." According to my memorandum of September 22, 1944, some 36,000,000 marks were spent for bunkers in Rastenburg [Wolf's Lair], 13,000,000 for bunkers in Pullach near Munich to provide for Hitler's safety when he visited Munich, and 150,000,000 for the bunker complex called the "Giant" near Bad Charlottenbrunn. These projects required 328,000 cubic yards of reinforced concrete (including small quantities of masonry), 277,000 cubic yards of underground passages, 36 miles of roads with six bridges, and 62 miles of pipes. The "Giant" complex alone consumed more concrete than the entire population had at its disposal for air-raid shelters in 1944.According to Nicolaus von Below, Hitler's adjutant:
The plans that we kept criticizing in those months [early 1944] included the construction of a huge new Headquarters for the Führer in Silesia, near Waldenburg, which was also to include Fürstenstein Castle within the estate of the von Pless princes. Hitler defended his orders and commanded that construction continue with the use of concentration camp prisoners managed by Speer. During the year, I visited this facility twice and each time had the strong impression that I wouldn't see its completion. I tried to inspire Speer to somehow influence Hitler to give the order that the project be stopped. Speer said that was impossible. The extravagant work continued - at a time when every tonne of concrete and steel was so urgently needed elsewhere.Before the entry of the Red Army some underground structures were probably destroyed, or at least the tunnels leading to them were blown up. In the documents of the Third Reich there are records which allow an assessment of the quantity of materials used in the construction of Project Riese and the volume of the tunnels. On this basis it appears that about half of the underground corridors have not been found yet.
Together with the Red Army the Polish Army arrived in the area in May 1945. After the war the complexes were stripped of all machinery and raw materials within a few years. They were very valuable to a country ruined as a result of six years of war. Some German documents concerning Project Riese were found by the Polish Army and taken over by The Office of Security and never seen again.
It appears that the castle and its immediate surroundings were prepared as one of Hitler's main headquarters, although there is no direct evidence in documents. The purpose of the underground complexes in the mountains has not been determined. The opinions of experts incline towards the assumption that they were shelters for war production. None of the underground workings are finished, all are in different states of completion with only a small percentage of tunnels reinforced by concrete, except for complex Książ.
Presently the underground workings are visited by tourists and the enthusiasts of military facilities. Much of the underground is closed because of risk of accidents (so they say, for me its evident that there is something to hide). The complexes Rzeczka, Włodarz and Osówka are open to visitors.
The individual structures of the project
The works in Książ Castle led to the destruction of some chambers, in particular suffered the decorative elements of the ceilings and floors. The most serious work however took place below the castle. There are two levels of corridors and chambers. The first level is 15 m under the ground accessible from the castle by a lift and a staircase and also by two entrances from the gardens. It is reinforced by concrete (80 m long, 180 m2, 400 m3). The second level is 53 m under the courtyard. It contains four entrances, the network of wide tunnels (5 m high and 5.5 m wide) and four chambers. Most of the underground is reinforced by concrete. There are three shafts leading to the surface with diameters: 5 m (presently filled with rubble), 3.5 m and 0.7 m. The total length of the complex is 950 m (3,200 m2, 13,000 m3). Presently it contains seismological measuring equipment of the Polish Academy of Sciences, only the first level of the underground is open to visitors. Above the ground are foundations for machinery, a series of buildings and storehouses and two reservoirs of water. There are remains of sewage treatment plant and a narrow gauge railway. The forced laborers camp of AL Fürstenstein was built near the castle.
The town of Głuszyca was in the centre of activity connected to Project Riese. Many camps of forced laborers were located in this area. It was a reloading place for the majority of supplies due to existence of a railway junction. In autumn 1943 the factory of Maschinenbau F. Krupp was relocated here from Essen. It took over local industry, mostly textile factories and adapted them to armaments production. As a preparation for the war an air raid shelter was built inside a hill near the factory of Mayer-Kauffmann Textilwerke AG . It has two entrances and is reinforced by bricks and concrete. The total length of tunnels is 240 m (600 m2, 1,800 m3).
The complex is located near the village of Dzikowiec, inside Wapnica Mountain . It is not classified as one of the complexes of Riese. A quarry and tunnels were created before the war as a result of limestone mining. It is surmised adaptation works were made here since 1943 by the prisoners of AL Ludwigsdorf II. The entrances number 1 and 2 are located inside the quarry. The tunnel number 3 (250 m long) starts from higher level and inclines towards the complex, reaching it 5 m above its floor. There are two large chambers (7 m high). The tunnel number 4, 100 m long and reinforced by stone, is not connected to the main underground. It was built to drain water from the mine. The complex was located near a railway.
The complex is located in the village of Ludwikowice Kłodzkie, the hamlet of Miłków and inside Włodyka Mountain . It is not classified as one of the complexes of Riese. It consisted of the ammunition and explosives factory Dynamit Nobel AG (code name: Mölke-Werke) which was located around the unused coalmine of Wenceslaus. The explosives from Dynamit Nobel AG were used to blast the tunnels of Riese, and the power station located here supplied the project with electricity. The coalmine was closed and flooded in 1939 because of frequent methane explosions. 191 miners lost their lives in one such explosion in 1930. When adaptation works started in 1942 numerous buildings and bunkers were built for the production and storage of ammunition and explosives. They were connected by the network of concrete roads and protected by anti-aircraft artillery. The forced laborers camps of AL Ludwigsdorf I and AL Ludwigsdorf II were built nearby. Presently the complex is in a state of ruin. The coalmine is still flooded and inaccessible, except for small sections. A large quantity of ammunition has been found hidden in the area of the complex.
All Fotos by Dylan
Entrance of the Osowka complex, at the foot of the Owl mountains.
|Ground dug helmets and weaponry (found in 2005)|
|The idea was to make smooth concrete tunnels. Here, the wooden foundation is visible. After the war most of the materials were removed by locals.|
One of the carts used by the workers. 13.000 worked at the project
|What is visible from the outside.|