Monday, August 01, 2011

Nazi Germany Techonology used in Cold War Aircrafts part 1

Much has been said about the use of German technology in the development of modern aviation, but wanted to make a visible comparered look to all of these theories and show they are indeed true, we get some fotos from some Nazi Germany secret projects and compared them with several aircraft of the post-war period it becomes immediately apparent that the similarities are many not only in aircrafts from the USA and its allies both also in aircraft of the Soviet Union.
This technology transference is now well documented in this Blog  hope you like


Messerschmitt P.1101




By the time an American infantry unit discovered the Oberammergau complex on 29 April 1945, the V1 prototype was approximately 80% complete. Wings were not yet attached and appear to have never had skinning applied to their undersides. The airframe was removed from the nearby tunnel in which it was hidden and all associated documents were seized. There was some lobbying by Messerschmitt Chief Designer Woldemar Voigt and Robert J. Woods of Bell Aircraft to have the P.1101 V1 completed by June 1945, but this was precluded by the destruction of some critical documents and the refusal of the French to release the remaining majority of the design documents (microfilmed and buried by the Germans), which they had obtained prior to the arrival of American units to the area.
The airframe, considered of no intelligence value after an interview with Voigt revealed its many design flaws, was put on outdoor display and became a favorite prop for GI souvenir photos. The prototype was shipped first to Wright Patterson AFB, then to the Bell Aircraft Works in Buffalo, New York in 1948. Damage ruled out any possibility for repair although the Me P.1101 design components were subsequently used by Bell as the basis for the Bell X-5, which was the first aircraft capable of varying its wing geometry while in flight. It is interesting to note that several engineers, including Bell's chief engineer Robert Stanley, resigned in protest over the decision to proceed with Woods' pet project, which in the end indeed verified the considerable basic design faults. The remnants of the P.1101 were scrapped in the early 1950s.

video

with the fotos togheter you can clearly see that the aircrafts are almost similar


Specifications (P.1101 V1 Prototype)

General characteristics
  • Crew: one, pilot
  • Length: 9.1 m (29 ft 0 in)
  • Wingspan: 8.2 m (27 ft 1 in)
  • Height: 2.8 m (9 ft 2.5 in)
  • Wing area: 15.9 m² (171 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 2,594 kg (5,718.78 lb)
  • Loaded weight: 4,064 kg (8,960 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × HeS 011A , 1,300 kg (2,866 lb)
  • * Fuel capacity : about 370 gallons
Performance
  • Maximum speed: 980 km/h (Mach 0.8) at 7,000 m[citation needed][specify] (612.5 mph)
  • Cruise speed: 985 km/h (616 mph) at 7,000 m (22,965 ft)
  • Range: 1,500 km (932 miles)
  • Service ceiling: 12,000 m (39,370 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 22.2 m/s (73 ft/s)
  • Wing loading: 236 kg/m² (42.87 lb/ft²)
  • Max wing loading : 296.5 kg/m²
Armament

 Bell X-5 




SAAB J-29



 F-86 Sabre and MG 15











We made the comparison between the Messerschmitt P.1101 and its developments in the Bell X-5 aircraft, Saab J-29, F-86 Sabre 15 and MG.
Now for the Focke Wulf Ta 183



Focke Wulf Ta 183






General characteristics
  • Crew: one
  • Length: 9.20 m (30 ft 2 in)
  • Wingspan: 10.00 m (32 ft 10 in)
  • Height: ()
  • Wing area: 22.5 m² (242 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 2,380 kg (5,247 lb)
  • Loaded weight: 4,300 kg (9,480 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Heinkel HeS 011 turbojet, 13 kN (2,700 lbf)
Performance
  • Maximum speed: 955 km/h (593 mph)
  • Service ceiling: 14,000 m (45,932 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 20.4 m/s (4,020 ft/min)
  • Wing loading: 196 kg/m² (41 lb/ft²)
  • Thrust/weight: 0.37
Armament




Historians including David Myrha  have made claims that the famous Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 was at least inspired by the Ta 183 because the Soviets captured plans of the Ta 183 from the Germans at the end of World War II. The MiG-15 does bear a superficial resemblance in layout sharing the high tailplane, bubble canopy, and nose mounted intake and guns although the aircraft are different in structure, detail shapes and proportions. The MiG-15's design shared features common to fighter designs of that era and were derived from combat experience and aerodynamic considerations (for example, the Republic F-84B/F, the French Dassault Ouragan and Mystère or the SAAB Tunnan).
A detailed design history of the MiG-15 has been published by the noted Russian aviation historian Yefim Gordon which refutes any connection between the Ta 183 and the MiG-15 and confirms that the MiG-15 was an entirely independent development. According to the designers, the MiG-15 was indeed an indigenous design, their choice of swept wings (first flown in the Soviet Union on the MiG-8) being due to their desire to move ahead of most western designs which were not intended for the 966 km/h+ (600 mph+) speed range. Mikoyan's own immediate post-war development of the late war German Me 263 rocket fighter plane prototypes, the Mikoyan-Gurevich I-270, may have been a more likely "in-house" inspiration, in some specific smaller details, for the later MiG-15.


video


After the end of the war, Kurt Tank, in exile in Argentina, resurrected the Ta 183 project, resulting in the derivative IAe Pulqui II. This version was modified to place the wings at a shoulder-mounted position, in order to avoid a heavy fuselage spar pass-through structure going around the engine, which resulted in deep stall problems at high angles of attack. This seemed solvable, however, and a newer version correcting these problems was planned. However, the financial crash of 1953, and the fall of Juan Peron, ended the project temporarily; by 1955, the project was permanently shut down. The final nail in the coffin for the Pulqui II project was the cheap availability of surplus combat proven F-86 Sabres from the end of the Korean War, at a fraction of the cost of the troubled and expensive Argentine aircraft.

Pulqui II




Another aircraft to be indirectly influenced by the Ta 183 was the Saab 29 Tunnan. SAAB engineers received German research studies in swept wings in the immediate post-war period via contacts in Switzerland, and incorporated it into the Tunnan design, which was still limited to paper studies at the time. The start of a series of jet fighter aircraft from Sweden, the Tunnan served into the 1970s

Lippisch DM-1


General characteristics
  • Crew: one
  • Length: 6.70 m (22 ft 0 in)
  • Wingspan: 6.00 m (19 ft 9 in)
  • Height: 3.25 m (10 ft 8 in)
  • Wing area: 20.0 m² (215 ft²)
  • Loaded weight: 2,295 kg (5,060 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Kronach Lorin coal-burning ramjet
Performance
  • Maximum speed: 1,650 km/h (1,025 mph)
  • Range: 1,000 km (621 miles)
  • Wing loading: 115 kg/m² (24 lb/ft²)

Investigation of the DM-1 Glider
video

The performance of the Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet encouraged engineer Alexander Lippisch to experiment with high-velocity, delta-winged aircraft flying beyond the speed of sound. In 1943 Lippisch became director of the Luftfahrtforschungsanstalt Wien (LFW— Aeronautical Research Institute at Vienna) and began to develop supersonic designs. Several experiments culminated in the design of the Lippisch DM-1 (Darmstadt-Munich model 1) glider. The one-seat, sharply-swept delta-wing DM-1 had a wingspan of 5.9 m (19 ft 5 in), a length of 6.6 m (21 ft 7 in), a height of 3.2 m (10 ft 5 in), an empty weight of 297 kg (655 lbs), and—if properly powered— an anticipated speed of Mach 6, about 6,743 km/h (4,188 mph). In August 1944 one glider prototype was under construction at the Flugtechnische Fachgruppe DarmstadtAs conventional fuels were in extremely short supply by late 1944, Lippisch proposed that the P.13a be powered by coal. Initially, it was proposed that a wire-mesh basket holding coal be mounted behind a nose air intake, protruding slightly into the airflow and ignited by a gas burner. Following wind-tunnel testing of the ramjet and the coal basket, modifications were incorporated to provide more efficient combustion. The coal was to take the form of small granules instead of irregular lumps, to produce a controlled and even burn, and the basket was altered to a mesh drum revolving on a vertical axis at 60 rpm. A jet of flame from tanks of bottled gas would fire into the basket once the P.13a had reached operating speed (above 320 km/h), whether by using a rocket to assist takeoff or by being towed. The air passing through the ramjet would take the fumes from the burning coal towards the rear where they would mix under high pressure with clean air taken from a separate intake. The resulting mixture of gas would then be directed out through a rear nozzle to provide thrust. A burner and drum were built and tested successfully in Vienna by the design team before the end of the war. It is not known what armament would have been carried by the P.13a; the MK 103 cannon would have been too heavy and large for such a small aircraft and it is possible that one or two large-calibre machineguns would have been used.
At the end of the war even the prototype DM-1 test glider had not been finished when it was captured by US forces. It was ordered to be completed by Lippisch's team and was then shipped to the USA where it was test-flown. Reportedly the results were very positive and lessons learned were incorporated into NASA's research aircraft of the 1950s and on.
Film footage exists which shows a gliding test of a scaled-down model of the P.13a. These tests began in May 1944 at Spitzerberg, near Vienna.
After the war, Lippisch, working with American aircraft designer Convair, developed and tested the XF-92 based on his designs, leading to the eventual adoption of the F-102 Delta Dagger and its successor, the F-106 Delta Dart


 
The delta Lippisch DM-1 when captured

 
In Langley Windtunnel in US




video

 

XF-92
F-102 Delta Dagger
F-106 Delta Dart

 

Me 163 B-1




General characteristics
  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 5.70 m (18 ft 8 in)
  • Wingspan: 9.33 m (30 ft 7 in)
  • Height: 2.75 m (9 ft 0 in)
  • Wing area: 18.5 m² (200 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 1,905 kg (4,200 lb)
  • Loaded weight: 3,950 kg (8,710 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 4,310 kg (9,500 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Walter HWK 109-509A-2 liquid-fuel rocket, 17 kN (3,800 lbf)
Performance
  • Maximum speed: 1,060 km/h (596 mph)
  • Range: 40 km (25 mi)
  • Service ceiling: 12,100 m (39,700 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 160 m/s[34] [N 5] (31500 ft/min)
  • Wing loading: 213 kg/m² (43 lb/ft²)
  • Thrust/weight: 0.42
Armament
  • Guns: *2 × 30 mm (1.18 in) Rheinmetall Borsig MK 108 cannons (60 rpg)

Five Me 163s were originally brought to the United States in 1945, receiving the Foreign Equipment numbers FE-495 and FE-500 to 503. An Me 163 B-1a, Werknummer (serial number) 191301, arrived at Freeman Field, Indiana, during the summer of 1945, and received the foreign equipment number FE-500. On 12 April 1946, it was flown aboard a cargo aircraft to the U.S. Army Air Forces facility at Muroc dry lake in California for flight testing. Testing began on 3 May 1946 in the presence of Dr. Alexander Lippisch and involved towing the unfueled Komet behind a B-29 to an altitude of 9,000–10,500 m (30,000–34,400 ft) before it was released for a glide back to earth under the control of test pilot Major Gus Lundquist. Powered tests were planned, but not carried out after delamination of the aircraft's wooden wings was discovered. It was then stored at Norton AFB, California until 1954, when it was transferred to the Smithsonian Institution. The aircraft remained on display in an unrestored condition at the museum's Paul E. Garber Restoration and Storage Facility in Suitland, Maryland, until 1996, when it was lent to the Mighty Eighth Air Force Museum in Pooler, Georgia for restoration and display but has since been returned to the Smithsonian and as of 2011 is on display unrestored at the National Air and Space Museum's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center near Washington D.C

video



Northrop X-4 a clear evolution of the

Me 163 B-1












 Weserflug P.1003/1 



This VTOL (Vertical TakeOff and Landing) aircraft project's design, by Weserflug, dates from 1938. The fuselage was fairly conventional, with a standard tail unit. The real difference in this design were the wings, which were hinged and tiltable about halfway along the length of the wings. Mounted on each end of the wing was a nacelle featuring a large diameter propeller. The wing was mounted high on the fuselage, so that the propeller would have the necessary ground clearance when the wing was tilted in flight position. A single Daimler-Benz DB 600 series engine was located in the fuselage behind the cockpit, and drove both propellers. The engine was fed by an air intake located in the nose. The main gear retracted into the fuselage, and the rear tail wheel retracted beneath the tail. A crew of two sat in a cockpit located in the top forward section of the aircraft.
          Although this was a very novel idea for an aircraft at this time, the concept never left the drawing board. A very similar design was later built by the United States as the Boeing V-22 Osprey, and began testing in 1989. Even today, the tilt-rotor concept is proving troublesome, and the fact that there would have had to be a very complex gearing arrangement for the Weserflug P.1103 (to tilt the wings and keep constant power to the large diameter propellers) would have proven a very difficult design hurdle. 






1 comment:

coment